Rotary kiln-electric furnace (RKEF) process is the main technology to deal with nickel laterite for the ferronickel alloy production in the world. However, this process needs huge amount of electric power due to the large ratio of slag to metal.
Driven by stainless steel production, ferronickel is present in numerous applications thanks to its specific properties. It is also present in the composition of high performance alloys, in electronic components and cutting tools as well as in electroplating and catalysis.
Nickel processing: Nickel processing, preparation of the metal for use in various products. Although it is best known for its use in coinage, nickel (Ni) has become much more important for its many industrial applications, which owe their importance to a unique combination of
ferronickel production, the nickel oxide and part of the iron oxide are reduced to metal in an electric furnace to form immiscible layers of slag and metal. The crude ferronickel is tapped from the furnace and refined to saleable ferronickel by conventional techniques.
ferronickel production to treat saprolite laterite ore. The RKEF process is a two-stage pyrometallurgical process that involves the calcination and the partial reduction of the saprolite
Nickel production has been historically based on sulphide ... However, ferronickel smelting is generally considered to be uneconomic for low grade laterites. 3 . CARON PROCESS ... Laterites are still a very much a frontier of nickel process development . 40 .
Ferronickel is vital importance to modern society. It is because ferronickel is main feedstock in stainless steel production. Without stainless steel, we would not be able to enjoy many of the things that we
The leading ferroalloy-producing countries in 2008 were Ukraine, China, South Africa and Russia, which accounted for 77% of the world production. World production of bulk chromium, manganese and silicon ferroalloys was estimated as 29.1 million tonnes (Mt) in 2008, a 3% decrease compared with 2007.
Thermal process equipment and services for cement & minerals, energy, metals, and oil & gas markets. Thermal process equipment and services for cement & minerals, energy, metals, and oil & gas markets ... Driven by stainless steel production, ferronickel is present in numerous applications thanks to its specific properties. It is also present ...
FERRONICKEL SMELTING Pyro.co.za. Ferronickel production both in blast furnace and electric furnace .have been analyzed ... suitable for to ferronickel electric smelting process whereas the
Ferronickel smelters in Dominica and Venezuela have an independent pyrometallurgical process for the removal of phosphorous after the electric furnace process mentioned later (Crundwell et al., 2011). The existence of independent removal process at high temperature naturally increases energy consumption and cost for production.
A process for producing a ferronickel product from a mixed nickel iron hydroxide product, said process including the steps of : a) providing a mixed nickel iron hydroxide product; b) pelletising the mixed nickel iron hydroxide product to produce nickel iron hydroxide pellets; c) calcining the nickel iron hydroxide pellets to produce mixed nickel iron oxide pellets; and d) reducing the nickel iron oxide pellets with
FERRONICKEL PRODUCTION AND OPERATION Table 3: Process steps of converter route Process step Aim 1 Tapping from electric furnace into the transport ladle 2 Oxygen blowing in the converter Enrichment of nickel Removal of carbon, silicon, phosphorus 3 De slagging Removal ofFe203, Si02 and P20s rich slag 4 Electric arc or ladle furnace treatment Deoxidation and desulfurisation
PILOT PLANT PRODUCTION OF FERRONICKEL FROM NICKEL OXIDE ORES AND DUSTS IN A DC ARC FURNACE I.J KotzØ (Pyrometallurgy Division, Mintek, South Africa)
Ferronickel is mostly used as main raw material of stainless steel. Stainless steel belonging to nickel is not only heat-resistant, corrosion resistant, acid-resistant and abrasion-resistant , but it also boasts of excellent processability.
The first one to be simulated is the conventional ferronickel production in electric furnaces. 3.1 Conventional Ferronickel Production (Electric Furnace) The process is based on RKEF technology (Rotary Kiln Electric Furnace). In this simulation, ore composition is chosen for
OPTIMIZATION OF FERRONICKEL PRODUCTION ... process below 1000°C. Finally, the reduced ore was smelted to produce ferronickel. No coal was added at the smelting stage and the reduction reactions were completed by the unreacted coal from . vi the previous prereduction stage. Conditions were adjusted to produce a ferronickel
PT ANTAM (Persero) Tbk. ANTAM is a vertically integrated, export-oriented, diversified mining and metals company. With operations spread throughout the mineral-rich Indonesian archipelago, ANTAM undertakes all activities from exploration, excavation, processing through to marketing of nickel ore, ferronickel, gold, silver, and bauxite.
Patent WO2015015468A1 A ferronickel product and a . The invention relates to a process for the production of a ferronickel product from laterite ore or a and
The invention relates to a process for the production of a ferronickel product from laterite ore or a concentrate made from nickel bearing laterite ore to yield the ferronickel product which contains in excess of 10% nickel when produced from limonite ore and in excess of 30% nickel when produced from saprolite ore and less than 0.5% carbon.
Understanding ferronickel smelting from laterites through computational thermodynamics modelling ... World annual production of ferronickel is around 250 000 t, with the two largest producers being the Australian company BHP Billiton and the French company ERAMET, through its
Mintek has been working on the production of unrefined ferronickel from nickel-containing laterite in DC-arc furnaces since 1993. In this process, lateritic material is fed, together with a carbonaceous reducing agent, to the central region of the molten bath of a cylindrical DC-arc furnace. This feed material is preferably pre-treated, i.e. hot (calcined), and optionally pre-reduced.
Nickel was an important material for the production of austenitic stainless steel, heat resistant steel and nick- ... process, which provides guidance for rational exploiting and utilizing of the low grade laterite nickel ore. ... Making Ferronickel from Laterite Nickel Ore by Coal-Based Self-Reduction and High Temperature Melting Process ...
Full-Text Paper (PDF): Furnace technology for ferro-nickel production An update